Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Essay --

Climate change which is attributed to global warming caused by fossil fuels is, perhaps, one of the most important concerns in the world. Owing to the tremendous increase in polluting gaseous which are sulfur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) and greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) developing countries, such as UK, are working on new technologies to meet the limits that have been established under Kyoto protocol (Roskilly, A.P., Nanda, S.K., Wang, Y.D., Chirkowski, J., 2007; Center for Electromechanics, 2014; Fernandez Soto, J.L., Garay Seijo, R., Fraguela Formoso, J.A., Gregorio Iglesias, G., Carral Zouce, L., 2010; Jayaram, V., Agrawal, H., Welch, W.A., Miller, J.W. & Cocker, D.R., 2011) . Although land transportation, such as cars, trains and trucks, contributes to emitted gaseous, marine vessels play a significant role in air pollution. According to Fernandez Soto et al., 2010, approximately 42% of the European Union’s (EU) domestic transportation and 90 % of trade with non-European countries are done by sea. The EU is trying to encourage the use of marine vessels for transportation of goods to reduce the polluting gaseous and greenhouse gas emissions over land transportation. Even though the regulations of emitted gaseous by the legislation of Annex VI of the MARPOL, Fernandez Soto et al., 2010 claimed that emissions from marine vessels, SOx, NOx and PM, would increase by 40%, 50% and 55%, respectively, by 2020. Apart from the destructive effects of fossil fuels on environment, high costs and limited reserves of them force ship owners and transportation companies to seek for alternative sources (Roskilly et al., 2007). Fernandez Soto et. al., 2010 assessed the types of alternative en..., 2007). Both a heating line preventing condensation and a conditioning unit keeping the temperature of the gas below 40 0C and the saturation level is correct are essential. The whole exhaust computation system is shown in Fig. 5 (Roskilly et al., 2007).The analysis of trial fuel Lloyds Register FOBAS fuel analysis service examined the biodiesel from recycled cooking fat and vegetable oil and fossil diesel for elemental constitution and other properties and prepared a robust report shown in Table 3 (Roskilly et al., 2007). Table 3. The analysis results of fuels The experimental procedures for the trails Roskilly et al., 2007 followed the ISO 8178 test procedure and the test cycle E5 used for marine crafts less than 24 m in length to receive a standardized set of data. Besides, to calculate specific exhaust emissions the weighting factor is used (Table 4).

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